Orville’s Golden Rule Experience 

Orville was traveling to Thatcher from Globe, sweat beaded on his brow and sun beating down overhead. The horses were doing the hardest of the work for him, pulling the wagon and kicking up dust, but the dry heat still made the skin on his face redden. He was passing over Goodsen Wash, a couple of miles east of Geronimo, when he noticed two figures off to the side of the road. They were natives, tucked up under a frail bush and practically frying in the sun. Orville watched as one of them lifted their heads up as the sound of wagon wheels, eyes bleary. They were visibly dehydrated, weak, and hungry. The horses pulled Orville closer, and only when they were right next to the two did he tug on the reins. The wagon stopped; he got a closer look. 

They were dying, slowly wasting away under the sun that showed mercy to no one. Orville licked his dry lips, eyes set, as he decided that he’d show the mercy the sky lacked. He didn’t have much to spare, but a canteen of water and a loaf of bread found their way into his hands. Gently, he tossed them over the edge of the wagon, right into the laps of the two hungry Indians. One of them looked up at him, eyes gleaming with gratitude akin to a shimmering creek. Orville looked back, and with a small smile, gave them a tilt of his hat. Turning back to the horses, he flicked the reins, and was back on the road.

Hours passed, and the sun was still high in the sky. Orville was traveling into the sandier part of the wash, where the ground was looser and heavier loads meant higher risks. His belongings rocked against each other in the back of the wagon, and the horses were slowing due to the soft dirt. It wasn’t long till progress completely stopped, the wheels of the wagon far too lodged in the sand to be pulled by horses. Orville straightened his hat, pulling a shovel out from the wagon and hopping off to dig the sand away from the wheels. Sweat dripped down his face, and only when he glanced up did he realize that he was surrounded by twenty Apache tribe members on horseback. 

The sun blazed as he was taken back to their camp; the heat burning the ground he walked on. All of his belongings were seized, and he was left with nothing but the fear that twisted in his stomach. That was when guns and arrows were retrieved. They forced him to dance, shooting arrows and bullets at his feet; whooping and laughing as he hopped from one foot to another. Shortly after, Geronimo gave out new orders, and Orville found himself bound to an upright pole. Dried brush was stacked around him, and the danger set in when a torch was lit. They were going to burn him. 

It was then that two of the tribe members stumbled into camp. They were visibly weak, barely holding themselves up as they took in the scene. One of them glanced at Orville, looking him in the eyes, and recognized him. They were the natives he had given supplies to. Immediately, they began to plead with Geronimo, asking him to let Orville go. Geronimo agreed, and Orville was cut loose. 

Orville arrived at Thatcher soon after, reporting what had happened to officials. He never forgot how kindness saved his life, nor the importance of selflessness. It humbled him, and he carried the story with him to be passed down to his children, grandchildren, and so forth. Which

leads to now, where I appreciate how my fourth great-grandfather Orville valued the importance of the Golden Rule.

1. Have you ever had an experience like this, where you came face to face with someone going through a difficult or desperate challenge? Write about that experience or write about how you see the Golden Rule in what Orville chose to do. 

2. Orville was held hostage during a time of great unrest between the settlers of the west and Native Tribes. Can you imagine a situation like Orville’s that might happen today due to danger and civil unrest?

3. In what ways did Orville’s Golden Rule actions have an impact on the preservation of his life?4. Write a few sentences about how this essay affected you and how it can impact your life.

Essayist: Camylle Palmer 

School: Heritage Academy

City: Mesa

The O’Connor Golden Rule: Fighting for Justice  

“Society as a whole benefits immeasurably from a climate in which all persons, regardless of race or gender, may have the opportunity to earn respect, responsibility, advancement, and remuneration based on ability.” – Sandra Day O’Connor 

Hundreds of patient spectators sat tightly in the White House East Room as President Barack Obama placed the Presidential Medal of Freedom around the first female Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor’s neck. The blue satin ribbon enveloping the gleaming star that proudly sat on her chest represented a rich history of civility, equity, and perseverance–key tenants of the Golden Rule. 

O’Connor was born on March 26, 1930 in El Paso, Texas, but spent her early childhood on a large, bustling ranch named “Lazy-B-Cattle Ranch” in southeastern Duncan, Arizona. She was extremely independent and practical from a young age, learning how to drive as soon as she could see over the dashboard and teaching herself how to change flat tires on the side of the road. She also was keenly involved in politics, with her older sister Ann Day serving in the Arizona Legislature. However, gifted schooling for young girls like O’Connor was sparse in such a remote area, and so, she returned to El Paso with her grandmother to receive a higher quality of education. She attended the Radford School for Girls and was admitted to Stanford University at just the age of sixteen years old. Despite graduating at the top of her class in both her undergraduate and law schools, O’Connor struggled to find work as a law firm attorney due to a prominent stigma of women in the legal field at the time. She became a deputy district attorney in San Mateo County, California for free after turning down a paid legal secretary position and then moved to Germany with her husband, where she served as an attorney for the army in 1954 for three years. Even after her persistent struggles as a female attorney, O’Connor continued firmly and treated her male counterparts with respect when they made assumptions about her intelligence simply because she was a woman. 

O’Connor returned to the United States in 1957 to her home state of Arizona to set up a private practice in Maryvale and become an Assistant Attorney General of Arizona. Her first landmark achievement started in 1969, in which she was elected as a Republican to the Arizona Senate and became the first woman in any state to rise to majority leader. It was through her profound respect for bipartisanship and impartiality that she could obtain this momentous position and begin to represent the Golden Rule to Arizonan women. 

After winning the election for the Superior Court of Maricopa County, President Ronald Reagan nominated her in 1981 for the Supreme Court as the first ever female justice, describing her as a respected jurist in both parties. She quickly demonstrated her legal pragmatism on the bench, especially in such disparate fields such as discrimination laws and abortion rights. She fought for underrepresented minority groups, where she protected African-American majority counties from gerrymandering in Shaw v. Reno and defended women’s abortion rights against her Republican coworkers in Roe v. Wade. Her contributions significantly paved the path for federal female judges across the nation and gave a voice to disproportionately affected communities that did not have one before. Through her unbiased, detailed decisions in court, she expressed her personal opinions civilly with opposing justices and set a precedent for objectivity.

O’Connor retired from the Supreme Court in 2006, but still maintained her priority for respectful constitutional conversations. She founded iCivics in 2009, a non-profit organization that promotes civics education to young students by providing accessible educational media and lesson plans. She held forums for youth of varying political backgrounds to discuss notable social issues in a civil manner through iCivics and consequently helped Arizonan students’ civic test scores almost double. 

The Golden Rule is a profound cross-cutting principle that transcends the boundaries of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, etc. It serves as a benchmark for proper conduct in an academic setting and emphasizes respect for not only yourself, but also those around you. Sandra Day O’Connor, regardless of her past hardships, has utilized this important rule in her legal proceedings to speak up for marginalized groups and expand access for youth civic education to unite a politically divided Arizona.

1. List 4-5 character traits Justice Sandra Day O’Connor displayed that helped her have civil conversations and be collegial with others.

2. Are there experiences in your life that have helped you understand other people, even when you may not have agreed with their viewpoints?

3. Highlighting the Golden Rule in Justice Sandra Day O’Connor’s life, are there ways that you could use the Golden Rule in your life to create more positive interactions?

4. Write a few sentences about how this essay affected you and how it can impact your life.

Essayist: Anusha Rahman

School: Hamilton High School

City: Chandler

An Anonymous Stranger Gives A Helping Hand

Have you ever interrupted your plans and stopped to help a stranger you might never see again? Have you chosen to be inconvenienced to help with something that might not even affect you?

In an election year, late winter and early spring bring the appearance of campaign signs along roadsides the way sporting events bring tailgaters to parking lots. In the Valley of the Sun, summer temperatures and winds make maintaining these signs difficult. Friday, June 22, 2012 was another one of those hot days. The temperature in Mesa was 109 degrees and the intersection of Southern Extension was not a shady, pleasant spot to leave the comfort of an air-conditioned vehicle.

As he was driving by, Dr. Lee Fairbanks noticed a large campaign sign had pulled loose from its wires and was hanging halfway down. He thought that soon it might come completely loose from the remaining post. Maybe it would fall onto the sidewalk, creating a problem for walkers. If the large sign fell into the street, it would be a road hazard for cars.

Dr. Fairbanks stopped and parked in the nearby lot to see if he could secure the dangling sign to its posts. He had no shovel in his car to reset one of the posts, so he hoped to fasten the wires with pliers and pound in the post with a hammer. It was tough work and as time passed, he was not having much success bringing the heavy sign closer to the second post. Suddenly, things seem to get easier.

Dr. Fairbanks recalls, “I looked up through the heat and dust to see a helping hand on the post that was towering above me, pulling it toward the sign. With my helper and I pulling together, despite having no shovel to reset the bent-over post, we were able to combine our individual strengths, uplift the sign and get the thing wired safely.”

Dr. Fairbanks did not get a chance to ask the helpful stranger’s name and thank him. When the job was done, the man who had stopped his truck when he saw someone in need of a helping hand immediately jumped back in his truck and went on his way.

  1. Was the anonymous stranger the only person showing Golden Rule behavior in this incident? Explain.
  2. We do not know if Dr. Fairbanks and the anonymous helping hand were in favor of this candidate or opposed to him or her. In either case, how does their repair of the sign reflect treating others the way you would want to be treated?

Egg Money

Businesses must be profitable to survive. What effect does following the Golden Rule have on their workers, the environment and their community?
During the last years of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, many women kept small flocks of chickens for more than their food value. During good times, “egg money”, made by selling the hen’s eggs, provided extra cash a woman could spend on luxuries. But during hard times, the egg money often made the difference in a family having necessities… or going without.

Nell Hickman was a farm woman who knew the value of egg money. Her
husband, Guy, was a miner who worried about the health hazards of working in the Kansas silica mines. His father had died from lung damage. Guy wanted to offer a better life for his own two sons. However, money was scarce during the Great Depression of the 1930’s, and their small farm did not produce enough income to meet the family’s needs. Often, the two crates of eggs the family brought into town on Saturday night made the difference between purchasing what the family needed
or doing without. Six cents per dozen worked, if the family could trade some of the eggs for other items. Eleven cents per dozen was the price that guaranteed them the needed extra. That nickel more was not chicken feed, a trivial amount of money to the Hickmans.

In 1938, a move to Arizona opened new opportunities for the family. Guy was able to work on the Bartlett Dam in the Verde Valley. Clean air for his lungs and a better income gave Guy more confidence in the future. With the start of World War II, good-paying construction jobs were easy to find in California. Guy would spend some time working there to save money toward achieving the dream he and Nell shared.

By 1944, they had saved enough money to buy several acres of farmland in
Glendale, Arizona and enlarge their flock of hens from two-dozen to fifty. Protein was rationed during the war, so Nell had a thriving business selling her eggs from baskets on the back porch of their home. Soon, one small truck was delivering Hickman Eggs to local stores and restaurants, and even to establishments in Phoenix. Egg money
and hard work were moving the family closer to prosperity.

Seventy years later, Clint, Glenn, Billy, and Sharman are the third generation of Hickmans running the family business. Hundreds of employees work in vast automated henhouses, which house over four million hens. Hickman Farms, which started on Grandma Nell’s back porch, is now the largest egg producer in the Southwest and one of the largest in the nation. The Arizona Food Marketing Alliance chose Hickman Farms to receive the 2012 Excellence in Leadership Award as Supplier of the Year. This is a wonderful story of industrious effort leading to great
success, but how does it reflect the Golden Rule?

This author first learned about Hickman Farms at a volunteer event which
celebrated another successful year for the St. Mary’s and Westside Food Banks. After receiving thanks for their donation of over one million eggs, Clint Hickman modestly informed the group that he and his brother had been successful in encouraging other National Egg Council members to join the effort in their states. They were also lobbying for other “protein producers” to find ways to implement donations. Countless eggs from Hickman Farms also show up in other areas of the valley. The Phoenix Children’s Hospital has long been a regular recipient of donated
Hickman Farms’ eggs. Easter time in Phoenix has been enhanced by the Governor’s Egg Roll–with eggs supplied by the company. Hickman Farms are on the list of Founding Sponsors for the World Wildlife Zoo
A stop at the grocery store will reveal some Hickman Farms eggs packaged in environmentally friendly recyclable cardboard containers. The container’s lid often features a photograph of Arizona’s natural beauty. Lifting the lid, the purchaser may read the notice that Hickman Farms will donate $5 to the Arizona State Parks Foundation for each subscription to Arizona Highways.

At the company’s largest site, the hen houses are placed so that prevailing winds help to cool the structures. This arrangement reduces energy usage. What about water? The millions of eggs produced each day are washed twice and sanitized before packing. Recycling of that water saves 250,000 gallons per day of one of Arizona’s most precious resources. Support for the people of their state, support for its beauty and environment, what else can be found to show ethical practices by this corporation?

The largest egg production facilities in the United States often house their hens in tiny cages where even wing movement is impossible. Beaks are clipped to prevent the hens from seriously pecking each other due to the overcrowding. Mountains of manure covered with flies and maggots are a common sight. The amount of ammonia in the air is often high enough to burn workers’ eyes and lungs to the point where medical treatment may be needed. Inspections of these sites regularly result in large fines. The dangerous salmonella outbreaks of 2010, which resulted in the recall
of almost one billion eggs, were traced to eggs marketed by the largest of these corporations.

In the same time period, Hickman Farms developed precautions to protect the health of the millions of hens in their modern, clean facilities. Group cages are large enough for up to four hens. The cages are small, but allow for movement and group interaction more normal to a flock.

With the hens’ beaks unclipped there is some pecking, but the result is a natural pecking order that does not cause birds to be pecked to the skin by over-aggressive cage-mates. Lighting in the building is controlled to follow the natural day / night cycle, which creates a more natural environment and allows for natural sleep. While Hickman hens are not given hormones, they would be given antibiotics if they became ill. Fortunately, company records show consistent healthiness among the flocks. Records also provide important documentation to prove that, as of 2012, there has never been an outbreak of salmonella at Hickman Farms.

The Hickman Leghorn chickens are their natural white, not covered in manure dripping down from the hens above them. The area smells like a farm, but the eye and lung-burning ammonia smell is absent. The huge amounts of manure created by millions of chickens are gathered, dried and ground to create fertilizer used by many of the local farms. These “best practices” have been shared with other companies to spread healthfulness and efficiency within the egg production industry.

As long as humans are meat-eaters, animals will be killed and eaten for food. The noted autistic veterinarian, Dr. Temple Grandin, has developed many practices which allow for more humane treatment of animals raised for human consumption. Many of these practices are reflected in conditions at Hickman Farms. Concern followed by action to help Arizonans in need, support for the environment of our beautiful state, and caring treatment for their feathered employees; all of these are evidence of a corporation making the choice to live the Golden Rule.

(Sources: St. Mary’s Food Bank newsletters; Arizona Republic, Aug. 8, 2008; Arizona
Republic, Dec.11, 2008; Website: Phoenix Home and Garden; Website: Hickman

  1. Give a brief written or oral summary of factors in the growth of Hickman Farms.
  2. How does the author tie personal and corporation actions to behavior shown when
    following The Golden Rule?
  3. Write a dialogue as a chicken reflecting on the environment at Hickman Farms
    compared to the other sites described.
  4. Research Dr. Temple Grandin and briefly list some of her important findings.

No Matter What Challenges You Face

No Matter What Challenges You Face: A Remarkable Friendship

What traits do you look for in a friend? What activities do you enjoy most with your friends? How would you communicate your feelings if you lost the ability to speak? Two-year olds and adolescents both love the feeling of independence. For the two-year olds, the feeling is fueled by the ability to move around independently — often amazingly quickly — and the ability to say, “NO!”

Most adolescents have the physical skills necessary to be independent. The next task is to develop the life skills necessary to make the many complicated choices showing we have the maturity and responsibility that accompany independence. One of those choices is how we choose to interact with people who are very different from us. The desire to fit in with our peer group may complicate our choice. Sometimes our choice may be complicated by our wish to fit in with our peer group. Sometimes our choice sets an example of the best that we can be.

Imagine having a friend who can’t go for a pizza, shoot hoops, or play video games with you. In fact, the friend can only communicate with you by blinking their eyes for “Yes.” How far would you go to provide that friend with opportunities they might not have without your help? That was the situation for Dayton and Spencer, two thirteen-year old friends in Gilbert, Arizona.

Dayton Hayward was born with cerebral palsy. Due to the severity of his condition, Dayton does not move on his own and cannot speak. He responds to questions by blinking for ‘Yes”. If there is no blink for a question, then his answer is “No” His family has always included Dayton in their activities. Family bike rides, with Dayton in a tow trailer, gave him the opportunity to enjoy the outdoors and the feeling of the wind rushing past his face.

Dayton and Spencer Zimmerman became friends through their church youth group. Spencer takes the responsibilities of leadership of the group very joyously. He feels service to others is a win-win experience. “It makes you feel good and makes the other person feel even better.”

Physical activity is also very important to Spencer. He had participated in several youth triathlons and was looking forward to the 2011 Gilbert Mini-Triathlon Event. The event would require athletes to bike 12 miles, swim 500 meters, and run 3.2 miles. He decided it would be even more fun to participate in the triathlon with a friend, and he chose to ask Dayton. When their families were together, Spencer decided it would be a good time to invite Dayton to be his partner in the event. Spencer leaned down, grabbed Dayton’s knees, and looked into his friend’s face.
“Dayton, would you like to run a triathlon with me?”

Those few seconds of silence must have seemed like forever to everyone watching. Then, suddenly, Dayton began to blink…yes, Yes, YES!
After many training sessions, testing both the equipment and the boys’ endurance, Dayton and Spencer were ready to compete. The first leg was biking the 12 miles. Dayton’s tow cart was attached to Spencer’s bike. At the signal, they were off!

Spencer recalls, “It felt harder on the bike, pulling someone behind me the whole way. But it felt awesome, knowing that my good friend was within five feet of me the whole time. You can do hard things, no matter what your challenges are.”

When they finished the twelve miles, Spencer pulled on a harness attached to a small inflatable raft. When Dayton was secured in the raft, Spencer began to swim the necessary laps. At the end of the 500 meters, Dayton was lifted out of the boat and transferred into the tow trailer again, with a push bar accessory which allowed Spencer to push Dayton ahead of him as he ran. Over half way through the 3.2 miles, Spencer began to feel sapped of strength and energy.

“I was out of juice! I was just out of energy to go on. Then, I saw Dayton smiling. I could feel his spirit. The spirit was pushing me. I don’t know where it came from, but somehow I got the energy to sprint the last few hundred yards to the finish line.”

Spencer and Dayton proved that it is indeed possible to do hard things, no matter what challenges you face. Spencer did not expect to have the video clips of their triathlon become a YouTube sensation. He just wanted to share the experience with his friend and give Dayton the chance to feel the wind in his face. Neither did he expect to receive the Gilbert Citizen of the Month Award from Gilbert Mayor, John Lewis. Dayton was there to share in the moment too. Spencer pushed him forward in his wheelchair to share in the ceremony.

And how did they do in the triathlon? They finished 82nd overall, but with two First Places… one in Relay…and the other in Friendship.

  1. How does Dayton’s medical condition affect his daily life?
  2. What extra practice and support from others may have been necessary for Spencer and Dayton to participate in the triathlon?
  3. Explain what you think Spencer meant by his statement, “You can do hard things, no matter what your challenges are.”
    ©2012, AGREE / SLS Page 3 of 3 No Matter What Challenges You Face
  4. Once Spencer mentions that “feeling his good friend was within five feet” of him during the whole event was awesome. Later he says that feeling Dayton’s spirit gave him the energy to push on when he was out of juice. What do you think that Spencer sees in Dayton that others might not notice?
  5. Take a position on the following statement and explain your reasoning:
    It would be easier for a teen-ager to engage in a friendship with someone who has a severe disability than it would be for an adult to do so.
    EXTRA: Go to www.azifm.org and look up Golden Rule Award Banquet, 2013. Discover what famous personality spoke about Spencer and Dayton before he spoke about his own award.

Cost of Setting an Example

What is the Cost of Setting an Example?

Think of a time you have given up something you really wanted. What would you have done if you had the choice? How can a personal sacrifice be turned into an example of leadership for others?

Not much seems more important in high school than fitting in, especially when you are suddenly starting high school 1,000 miles from your home town. Dustin had more than one advantage to help him adapt to his new school. He was one quarter Anglo, one quarter Korean, one quarter Puerto Rican, and one quarter Native American. “I’m a living example of groups getting along,” was his motto. But, the real ace up his sleeve was card tricks. Before coming to Tempe, he researched the internet, bought a book, and practiced until he had a collection of impressive tricks. His card tricks always attracted a crowd and opened doors for forming new friendships.

Unfortunately, cards would not be the only thing to be shuffled in his life. After his freshman year, Dustin and his family would follow his father to a new job in California. Football and cards paved the way to connecting with another new group. Dustin’s groups always included everyone: athletes, musicians, serious students, and the people on the fringes whom he took under his wing. Starting in middle school, Dustin had made a point of befriending and defending those who were bullied or isolated. There was something about his charisma, confidence, and leadership that made his actions the accepted standard.

Just two weeks before the start of his junior year, the economic crisis which began in 2008 took its toll on Dustin’s family. His parents made the critical decision to return to the Phoenix area and search for new jobs. Arriving just as the first week of football practice started, they made a commitment to Dustin that he would spend his last two years in this, his third high school.

Even before the two rental trucks were unloaded and the family’s belongings were arranged, Dustin began to make friends. Two neighbors helped with the unloading and took him to observe football practice. For Dustin, his junior year would be good in many ways. His leadership skills continued to develop as he turned the family’s garage into a weight room and spent many hours bonding with the new younger members of the football team. His grades hovered in the B range and he was able to take part in several co-curricular activities. That spring he was selected to represent his school at Arizona’s Boys’ State Conference in June. Dustin saw this as a great opportunity.

However, the family’s financial situation had become more and more desperate as months went by with his father unable to find a job. His parents kept the commitment to allow Dustin to remain in the same school for one more year until graduation, even though keeping that promise caused hardships and separation. Just before the school year was out, Dustin’s father left to take a job a thousand miles away, where he would live with a relative and send almost all of his paycheck back to the family. His mother commuted to her hospital job in the family’s only vehicle, which had been given to Dustin for his sixteenth birthday. She returned home exhausted more than twelve hours later. Dustin and his siblings needed to be responsible for themselves and the house that summer before his senior year.

The bright spot in Dustin’s spring and early summer had been his preparation for the week at Boys’ State in Flagstaff. He had the opportunity to make contacts with some of the adults on the Governing Board and had been encouraged to run for an office. Leadership was an important part of Dustin’s character and he understood the benefits of participation in Boy’s State at both the state and national levels. At one meeting for the delegates, Dustin met the candidate from a nearby school. This new friend was going to need transportation. “No problem,” Dustin said. “My mom will pick you up on our way.” His dreams, clothing, and the ever-present deck of cards were packed and ready two days before Saturday’s departure. The Friday morning before they were to leave, Dustin’s coaches gave him the word that he was expected to join a small group representing their team at an informal 3-day football training event beginning in two days. The fact that he had been chosen to represent the school at Boy’s State was inconsequential. Choosing to serve as the school’s representative instead of attending this sudden training event would cause the coaches to label him as “not a team player.” His consequences would include possible reduced playing time in the fall and the loss of his position as one of the team captains. Even under this pressure, Dustin remained determined to serve as his school’s representative to Boys’ State. Only the implication that the younger teammates would see his choice as abandoning the team broke that determination.

Under normal conditions, there would have been an administrator, counselors, or some adult with the ability to defuse the situation. But no one else was available to counsel Dustin that Friday. His devotion to his the younger teammates was the factor driving his decision. “I’ve worked so hard to bring them together. I’ve told them over and over that if you really want something, you have to sacrifice for it. If I don’t make this sacrifice, how will they ever believe me?” That was the question this student athlete asked an adult who urged him to go ahead with the Boys’ State experience he had anticipated for months. No one else really knew the level of sacrifice Dustin’s decision required.

Dustin’s mother got home very late that night and found him asleep, but with two packed duffle bags in the corner. In the morning, she woke him with the cry, “Hey, it’s time to pick up your friend and head to Flagstaff.” That was when she learned of his decision. “But don’t worry, Mom. He’s still going. I made sure he found someone who would give him a ride.” The ill-advised decision was made. Dustin would neither look back nor complain.

Dustin’s goal was to become a teacher and coach. His math skills were high, and he knew football coaches were often math teachers. His senior year of football season came and went. After the first game, he gave his captain’s position to another player. “He’s been at this school all four years. It would be more fair for him to be a captain,” was Dustin’s explanation. No hoped-for college offers appeared. College and a teaching/coaching position seemed out of reach.

Dustin’s father was able to come back and be there in person for the last game and the end-of-season banquet. He witnessed what had made everything worthwhile for his son. Several of the nervous first-year players asked Dustin to come and meet their parents. “Thank you for the attention and friendship you’ve given my son this year. He talks about you all the time and really looks up to you,” said one mother. That comment was the award Dustin treasured. The day after graduation, the family once again loaded up and headed to the city where Dustin’s father was working. By August, Dustin had lined up his future. In January, he would leave for Basic Training and Jump School as part of his year-and-a-half training for Special Forces. Before departing, he worked, took classes at the community college…and coached a youth football team. Two afternoons a week and on Saturday, Dustin lived his dream of being a coach. The dream is still there. It is just taking a time-out.

  1. Do Dustin’s actions reflect living the Golden Rule? Explain your opinion.
  2. What circumstances might have prevented his parents from over-ruling this high school student’s decision not to go to Boys’ State?
  3. What is your reaction to the statement: “I’ve told them over and over that if you really want something, you have to sacrifice for it. If I don’t make this sacrifice, how will they ever believe me?”
  4. What does giving his captain’s position to a player who had been at the school all four years indicate about Dustin’s character?
  5. What advice would you have given Dustin about attending Boys’ State?
  6. What are some other questions a person reading this article might have?

What is Winning?

Wafa Shahid, Arizona State University Journalism Student

Every week, millions of people watch high school sports, college sports, and professional sports. We watch amazing contests! We watch players who have spent countless hours in training stretch their skills to the limits.

It is a thrill, but notice the word ‘Watch.’ Most of us have been nudged out of these activities before high school…sometimes even before junior high. Why? Is participation limited to the most skilled? Is it all about ‘winning?’ Making leaps and bounds across the grassy field, a young lacrosse player progressed toward the guarded goal. Pads strapped tightly to his shoulders and forearms, beads of sweat glistening beneath his Arrowhead Warrior helmet, nothing was going through his head and pulsing through his veins except: WIN. It was his time to shine. It was his time to show the world how much heart it took each day to be him.
Max Marangella, 12, scored that goal. He scored a goal for the Arrowhead Warriors in the final lacrosse game of the season and he also scored a goal in a larger game…in a game called life.

Max was born with three major congenital defects: one of the heart (Tetralogy of Fallot and a dilated aorta), a connective tissue disorder, and Congenital Short Gut, meaning he lacked the intestinal length of a typical newborn. These have resulted in a total of forty-one surgeries, with more in the future. Running even the length of several yards creates a huge strain on his body.

During the 2013 season, the Arrowhead Warriors participated in a program called Kids Playing for Kids. The team adopted Max with open arms. Max and his teammates consistently demonstrated that winning is more than just how many goals you can score. It is more than numbers on a scoreboard. Winning is about sportsmanship, determination and giving everything one has when participating. Ultimately, those three characteristics are what transforms a ‘winner’ into a ‘champion.’
“I want to promote service before self. I want to teach the kids about life,” said Coach Tav. He is the head coach of the Arrowhead Warriors and founder of Kids Playing for Kids. Judging by the conduct shown on the field, he has achieved his goal.

Due to Max’s heart condition, he can’t run around the field for very long. As a result, he is given the opportunity to score a goal without the opposing team pursuing him The opposing team and the Arrowhead Warriors come together to cheer Max on in every game as he attempts to score a goal.

“ Max shows the team that everyone has a different skill-set. He shows them what character and ‘heart’ really are,” Coach Tav said.
Max’s parents, the Marangella’s, notice that playing lacrosse has not only given him the opportunity to play with a welcoming group of peers, it has also helped improve Max’s hand-eye coordination.
“It’s a huge morale booster. It physically helps him. I’d like to see him continue lacrosse,” Patricia Marangella, Max’s mother said.

“You see these boys,” Max says, pointing to his teammates. “I love these boys! Playing sports with them is my pride and joy…aside from eating meat,” Max said with a grin.

“Max’s participation with the Arrowhead Warriors lacrosse team is a tribute to the Golden Rule because it has taught everyone humility and the need to be kind to someone regardless of their ability,” said Patricia Marangella. “There is beauty in everyone and everyone should be treated with the same acknowledgement of that beauty,”

Max has taught the Warriors how important it is to treat others the same way one would like to be treated. He has brought them closer together. Playing with Max has instilled in their hearts a fiery sense of perseverance toward a goal larger than just a winning score. The Arrowhead Warriors have learned and practiced a deeper meaning of sportsmanship.

  1. How do the Arrowhead Warriors enrich Max’s life?
  2. Speculate what are some of the additional challenges Max faces in life besides the physical ones.
    3 Coach Tav feels winning is about sportsmanship, determination and giving everything one has when participating. He believes those three characteristics are what creates a champion. Give three examples of ‘winners’ and decide if they are also champions by that definition.
  3. Give some ideas of how high school athletics could continue to be competitive, but also include more opportunities for participants to play just for the enjoyment of participation and the physical activity.
  4. Knowing what you know about Max’s health issues, why might “eating meat” be such a “pride and joy” for Max?

A Fair World

A Fair Word: and a Fair Fight
“Governments don’t live together. People live together. Governments don’t always give you a fair word or a fair fight.” This is a movie quote from The Outlaw Josie Wales. Is it an accurate statement of how governments and individuals interact with each other? Can you imagine yourself having a trusting, respectful friendship with someone many people would see as an enemy? Can people treat each other with respect even though their governments are at war?

In 1850, the young United States was embroiled in finding solutions to three problems. The first was maintaining the uneasy balance between the slave states and the free states. Second was overseeing expansion into the Oregon Territory and the new state of California. Access to both areas could be gained by sea, traveling around South America and up the coast. But this was costly and very time-consuming. The third problem was finding a way to use the two huge tracts of land acquired from Mexico, called the Utah and New Mexico Territories. Eventually, one section would become Nevada, Utah and western Colorado. By the early twentieth century, the other would become New Mexico and Arizona. However, the governments involved in these land transfers overlooked the fact that native peoples considered these lands their homelands. This attitude would create terrible difficulties.

For hundreds of years, the Chokonen band of Chiricahua Apaches had roamed the land in what is now northern Mexico and southeastern Arizona. They were a nomadic, hunter-gatherer culture. During the 1850’s, their leader was a man named Cochise. He was respected by his people as a man of honesty, courage, vision, and devotion to his people. Cochise led his band on raids among the Mexican settlers of the area, while having minimal contact with the few Anglos coming through Chiricahua land. There is some evidence that Cochise even supplied firewood to the Butterfield Overland Coach outposts as the coaches made their way through Arizona on the way from Texas to California. A decade later, rash actions by an inexperienced twenty-four year old Army Lieutenant would bring about a dangerous change in Cochise’s attitude toward the Americans in the Apache homeland.

In January of 1861, Indians raided a small ranch, stole some cattle and kidnapped the twelve year old stepson of rancher John Ward. Ward reported this to the local military. Under the assumption that Cochise was responsible, Lieutenant George Bascomb rode with fifty-four cavalry troopers to meet with Cochise at Apache Pass. Cochise came, under a peace banner, to declare his innocence and offered to find the band responsible. Along with Cochise were his wife and young son, his brother and two nephews. Refusing to believe Cochise, Bascomb captured the group and tried to hold them hostage. Cochise cut through a tent and was wounded as he escaped. Days later, he took some Butterfield stage drivers hostage, offering to exchange these hostages for his family. Cavalry Sergeant Reuben Bernard, who had served in the area for two years, advised Bascomb to free the Cochise’s family. Bascomb refused.

Over the next two weeks, the hostages were killed, Cochise’s wife and son were released, but his brother and nephews were hanged by the army. Their bodies were left to rot. The action became known as The Bascomb Incident. This distrust and miscalculation ignited a brutal war that would last eleven years and would cost hundreds of lives. Sergeant Bernard, who would ultimately be promoted to the rank of General, kept a journal during his entire military career. After the Civil War, he had more encounters with Cochise. When asked about his notes regarding the Bascomb Incident, Bernard said, “Cochise was at peace until betrayed and wounded by white men. He, now, when spoken to about peace, points to his scars and says, ‘I was at peace with the whites until they tried to kill me for what other Indians did; I now live and die at war with them’.”

With the onset of the Civil War in April of 1861, the United States military had to focus their actions on enemies closer to home. For over a decade, Cochise would be able to raid and attack white and Mexican settlements with little fear of pursuit. Resolution of the Apache problem would be left until 1872.

During those years, one white man came to Cochise offering him ‘a fair word and a fair fight.’ In 1862, Thomas Jeffords left a small village in western New York to pursue a life-long adventure in the Far West. In Arizona, he served as a scout and wagon driver for the army. This gave him knowledge of the area and the skills needed to become the manager of the Overland mail route in 1866. During the next sixteen months, eleven of his mail riders were killed by Apaches. Jeffords decided to do something to secure the safety of the mail carriers. Alone, he rode unarmed through the Dragoon Mountains to the Chiricahua camp to seek peace. Cochise was impressed by his bravery and realized it would be possible to build a trusting relationship with a white man like Jeffords. Years later, the relationship developed into a friendship and trust that enabled Jeffords to be initiated into the Chiricahua band.

Back in the eastern part of the United States, the recently-elected President Ulysses S. Grant, selected the man he felt could bring peace to Arizona. Because of his devout faith, General Oliver O. Howard was called “the Christian General.” At the end of the Civil War, Grant had assigned Howard to one of the most difficult jobs imaginable. Overseeing the Freedman’s Bureau required Howard to find a way to supply four million freed slaves with necessary food, clothing, and housing. As the former slaves began to take their place in society and pursue the rights of their new freedom, General Howard also had the responsibility to protect them from the groups of white militia determined to terrorize them. Howard decided to lead in the changes that needed to be made in Washington, DC. He integrated his own church and then founded a rigorously academic school for blacks. Today, that school is the prestigious Howard University.

General Oliver Howard was a man who treated others with the respect he wanted for himself. President Grant knew this was the man with the necessary skills, compassion and integrity to negotiate a peace with Cochise.

When Howard reached southern Arizona, he met with Jeffords. Convinced that General Howard would deal honorably with Cochise, Jeffords agreed to take the general and his aide-de-camp, Captain Joseph Alton Sladen, to the Chokonen stronghold and interpret the discussions between the two leaders. They were accompanied by two nephews of Cochise, one of whom was probably the son of the brother who had been killed in the Bascomb Incident. Captain Sladen recorded some impressions of Cochise in his journal. “He carried himself at all times with great dignity, and was treated by those about him with the utmost respect.” General Howard was greatly impressed by Cochises’s skills as a tactician. “No General in the Army of the United States could have made a better placement of his men to resist an attack from a superior force.”

But Cochise did not plan to resist. He knew that making peace was a necessity for the survival of his people. “We were once a numerous tribe, living well and at peace. But my best friends were taken by treachery and murdered,” Cochise said. Through Jeffords, he made clear the two requirements for peace: a reservation there in the Chiricahua homeland with a white man he trusted to serve as their agent. He wanted Jeffords to be that agent. As the representative of the United States, Howard agreed to the terms and peace was sealed.

Cochise was able to enjoy this peace for only a short time. Within two years, the strong leader of the Chiricahua began to weaken. The symptoms of his illness make it likely that he suffered from stomach cancer, an excruciatingly painful illness at a time when pain-killing drugs were not available. During this illness, Jeffords continued to visit and spend time with the friend he greatly admired. In a probable mixture –English, Spanish, and Apache–the two had a serious and honest conversation on June 7, 1874, which Jeffords later related to others. “Do you think you will ever see me alive again?” asked Cochise.
False truths, even comforting ones, were not part of their friendship.
Jeffords replied, “No, I do not think I will. I think that by tomorrow night you will be dead.”

“Yes,” answered Cochise. “I think so, too. About ten o’clock tomorrow morning. Do you think we will ever meet again?”
“I don’t know. What is your opinion about it?”
“I have been thinking a good deal about it while I have been sick here. I believe we will. Good friends will meet again–up there,” Cochise continued, pointing to the sky.

As he predicted, Cochise died about 10:00 the next day. Jeffords helped in the preparations for the burial, which custom required to occur on the same day as the death. Family members washed the great leader’s body and propped it up astride his favorite horse. Tom Jeffords was one of the mourners who led the horse and its load of belongings deep into the sanctuary of the Dragoon Mountains. There, everything would be placed in a well-hidden chasm. This location still remains secret.

After the death of Cochise, mining and ranching interests increased pressure to move the reservation further north. Tom Jeffords was considered too much of an advocate for the Apache to remain as agent. For the forty remaining years of his life, Jeffords lived on a small homestead near Owl Head Buttes in the Tortolita Mountains between Tucson and Tombstone.

In 1886, 500 of the Chiricahua were taken from their homeland and sent by train to St. Augustine, Florida. There they were confined in Fort Marion and the Castillo de San Marcos for the next twenty-eight years. Over 400 of these prisoners were women, children and the elderly. They were allowed to return to Arizona in 1914, the year Tom Jeffords died. Perhaps he and his old friend did meet up in the sky and watch their return.

Sources: “Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief,” Edwin R. Sweeney “Making Peace with Cochise: The 1872 Journal of Captain Joseph Alton Sladen,” edited by Edwin R. Sweeney with a foreword by Frank J. Sladen, Jr.

  1. Cochise was the leader of many savage attacks. Analyze his behavior in relation with following the Golden Rule.
  2. Respect and fair treatment are essential in negotiating and resolving many difficult interactions. Examine the differences in the meetings between Cochise and Lieutenant Bascomb and Cochise and General Howard. What were the similarities and differences? How did they affect the outcomes?
  3. RESEARCH: General Howard had another mission among the Nez Perce in the Northwest. He also developed great respect for the leader of that tribe. Find the similarities and differences between that case and his treaty negotiations with Cochise.
  4. Cochise and Jeffords forged a close friendship despite great cultural barriers. How do you think similar cross-cultural friendships could be formed today? What is their importance?

Four Remarkable Leaders

Four Remarkable Leaders: Leave a Legacy of Service
Arizona has a long history of relying on women leaders. What sacrifices accompany accepting a position of leadership?
Would it be easier or more difficult to be part of a family tradition of leadership?

Stroll through the beautiful community of Prescott and it is easy to find evidence of the legacy left by the service of four remarkable women. Their lives span eighty-five years and three generations. The impacts of their dedication to helping family, tribe, and the community were spread though the State of Arizona and the entire nation.

After the founding of Prescott in 1863, the Yavapai people were moved from their ancestral lands to reservations shared with other tribes. In 1878, an infant girl was born to a young Yavapai couple living on the San Carlos Apache reservation. Her parents named her Sica-tuva, which meant ‘Born Quickly.’ This baby girl who was in a hurry to be born would have a busy life filled with accomplishments and service to others.
Sica-tuva lived with her parents on the reservation until it was time for her to attend Rice Indian School and later the Phoenix Indian School. At that time, Government-run Indian Boarding School operated with the policy of assimilating children into the Anglo culture by separating them from their families. Children were expected to adopt an English name. Sica-tuva was fond of flowers, so she chose the name Viola. After finishing her years in school, Viola did not follow the example of many others and remain in Phoenix, She returned to her family on the San Carlos Reservation and became an expert basket and bowl maker, using the traditional willow, cottonwood, yucca and devil’s claw plant fibers for her creations. The design of one her bowls would later be chosen as a Tribal symbol. It reflected two groups living harmoniously together. She would blend her skill in English and her understanding of white culture with her own Yavapai heritage. This blending would change a people and a community.

In 1900, the Bureau of Indian Affairs made the decision to allow the Yavapai to return the Prescott area. At that time, the city had a population of just over 3,000. The eight Yavapai family groups who moved back added only a few numbers to the town’s population. Viola’s family was one of those eight. One year later, she married another one of those returning, Sam ‘Red Ants’ Jimulla. The young couple was became well-known and active in the community, as well as among the slowly increasing tribe. Sam’s calm, steady assurance and Viola’s kindness, energy and enthusiasm were an ideal match. Their efforts would have lasting benefits for both their tribe and the Prescott area.

During the Depression of the late 1920’s and early 1930’s, Viola used her skills as a basket-maker to teach other women how to make beautiful and useful baskets. Sales of the baskets provided extra income for many families. Not only useful, the baskets are now recognized as valuable works of art. Some of those Yavapai baskets can be found in international collections and in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C.

The Jimullas were able to work well with both the Anglo and tribal communities. Viola formed bonds with two prominent Prescott women, Sharlot Hall and Chamber of Commerce leader, Grace Sparks. Another valuable contact, Senator Carl Hayden helped Sam and Viola in their negotiations with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. These dealings resulted in the allocation of seventy-five acres of land as the official Yavapai Reservation in 1935. Sam was appointed to the position of Chief by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, but was also officially elected by the tribe. The value of service to the tribe was instilled early in the Jimulla family. Patricia McGee, their young granddaughter was very good at math. As a teenager, she assisted her grandfather and aunt with the tribal responsibilities as both secretary and treasurer.

Three of Sam and Viola’s daughters died as young women. With the help of their remaining daughters, Grace and Lucy, the couple raised other grand-children, in addition to Patricia. In 1940, more tragedy struck. Sam died from injuries after a fall from a horse. The tribe’s confidence in Viola’s leadership was so great that they elected her to become Chieftess.

At 62, she was the first woman elected to that position in the western United States. For the next twenty-six years, she would lead her people with great wisdom and kindness. She was drawn to serve them in whatever way they needed and helped them acquire better living conditions and facilities than many other tribes. Her move to strengthen the Yavapai Tribal Council enabled council members to have more interaction in governing the tribe. While still honoring the traditions of her tribe, she was able to create a bridge of understanding and cooperation between Prescott’s Yavapai and Anglo cultures.

Viola was a woman of great faith. She had joined a Presbyterian Mission near the reservation and was active in church life. In 1945, this mission and the city of Prescott hosted the first annual Southwest Indian Bible Conference. When a new building was constructed in 1957, the church chose the name Trinity Presbyterian. This was in honor of the trinity of the founding church, the Yavapai Presbyterians who gave it new vitality and the new Presbyterians in growing Prescott.

One of Viola’s greatest contributions to both the Yavapai and Anglo residents of Prescott came in the 1950’s. Senator Barry Goldwater had great affection for Prescott. It had been the site of his family’s earliest store and he respected the gentle and effective Yavapai Chieftess. Senator Goldwater and others joined in support of more land being added to the Yavapai reservation. The tribal holdings were enlarged to 1,327 acres. Viola firmly believed that education would yield a better future for both her tribe and the Prescott community. She led the council to withdraw their claim to a portion of those acres, with the condition that they be used to create a community college and park. Today, that land is the site of Yavapai College and Rough Rider Park.

Viola Jimulla died in 1966, after a lifetime of loving service to her people and community. Honors continued to be given to her after her death. In 1983, she was named “Woman of the Year” and inducted into the Arizona Women’s Hall of Fame in 1986.

In September of 2005, the University of Arizona dedicated the Women’s Plaza of Honor in celebration of the influence of women in the development of the state. One of the arches bears the inscription “Viola Sica-Tuva Jumilla”. Prescott found a very fitting way to celebrate her contributions to the community. The Rowle P. Simmons Community Center houses a “Meals on Wheels Dining Center”. In 2010, the Board of Directors commissioned a portrait of Viola to be painted on the wall, along with photos of her baskets and a history of her life. Two years later, she would once again be honored at the University of Arizona. Each of the twenty-two recognized Arizona tribal groups selected one woman as their tribe’s honoree on a new arch dedicated to prominent Native American women. Almost fifty years after her death, the Yavapai showed the love and respect they still felt for this humble woman by choosing her name to be imprinted as the Yavapai representative.

During the forty-six years she spent in the Prescott area, Viola Jimulla made positive impacts on both the community and the Yavapai people. After she died, she left the Yavapai an incredible legacy. This legacy was a trio of women she had raised and filled with the desire to serve their people. They would do so for the next twenty-eight years.
Viola’s oldest living daughter, Grace Mitchell, was selected by the Tribal Council to follow her mother as Chieftess. Like her mother, Grace had attended the Phoenix Indian School as a boarding student. In the early 1920’s, it was not uncommon for students to leave school after eighth grade. This was especially true for girls; and even more common for non-Anglo girls.

Grace’s family realized her love for education and encouraged her to remain in Phoenix, attending Phoenix Union High School. During her first year, she probably cast her first vote for a young man whose grandfather had started a store in Prescott. Barry Goldwater ran successfully for President of the Freshman Class. Decades later, Chieftess Mitchell would see her old classmate announce his candidacy for President of the United States on the steps of the Yavapai County Courthouse.

Graduating from high school and receiving her diploma was a great source of pride for Grace. It was also a source of pride for her tribe. Grace was the very first Prescott Yavapai to achieve this level of education. Just as her mother had wanted to improve the living conditions for the Yavapai, Grace envisioned education as the way to a better life. Her accomplishments were a shining example and she hoped that others would see education as a way of coping with and adapting to the needs of a changing world. Yavapai College was off to a good start, and Grace saw a way to make it even more available for young parents in the Prescott area. She urged the establishment of a day-care facility within the college. This made it possible for young parents to attend classes and have their young children cared for at the same location.

Upon her election by the Tribal Council, Grace was given a pair of white moccasins as a symbol of their hope she would travel far. For ten years, she was a woman who demonstrated great pride in her Yavapai heritage. She guided and uplifted her tribal family and her friends in Prescott. Her example was a positive one of compassion and understanding. Other tribes found her to be a wise woman whose opinions were respected. In 1975, the University of Arizona awarded Grace the honor of Distinguished Citizen for Continued Community Leadership. She had traveled far, but her journey was cut short. Grace Mitchell died in 1976, and the Yavapai Tribal Council once again needed to find someone who could pick up the reins of leadership.

Two more women who had been prepared and trained by the first Chieftess were serving on the Yavapai Tribal Council. Throughout their lives, they had learned the values of integrity, self-reliance and service for the good of others. As adults, they were examples of dedicated service to their tribe and community. Lucy Miller was the last of Sam and Viola’s daughters. Serving with her on the Tribal Council was her niece, Patricia McGee.

Like her mother and sister, Phoenix Indian school had been the site of Lucy’s initial education. As an adult, Lucy served on the Health Advisory Board for the school. She combined a knowledge of modern health practices with the traditional use of herbs and as a treatment for common illnesses.

Lucy also knew that sound management of the leasing rights for the tribe’s land was essential to the financial future of the Yavapai. The Tribal Council elected Lucy Miller to follow her sister Grace as their third Chieftess in 1976. Lucy showed her great confidence in Patricia McGee’s ability by appointing her to supervise these leases and the revenue they brought to the tribe.

Called “Aunt Lucy” by many people in the tribe and community, Lucy Miller could be relied upon for good advice. She took great pride in knowing that tribe members were educated and self-sufficient. The relationship between Prescott’s Yavapai and Anglo populations was peaceful and harmonious. But Lucy was becoming more and more concerned about an unanticipated situation.

Viola had been focused on acquiring tribal lands, improving living conditions for the Yavapai, and developing a strong bond with the Prescott community. Grace had seen education as the way to secure a better future, and Lucy had pursued ways to increase financial security for their people. But Lucy began to see that something very important was being lost.

Lucy remembered growing up as a member of a close and vibrant group of Yavapai who shared many activities together. They gathered seasonal foods, cooked them, and shared group meals. They celebrated special occasions together with traditional stories, crafts, music, and dancing. These things were becoming very rare by the time she was serving as Chieftess. The Yavapai had been able to successfully adapt to life in the Anglo culture, but at the cost of losing much of their own. Lucy Miller would dedicate the remaining years of her life to helping her people revive their tribal culture. As her health worsened, she would rely more and more on her niece Patricia McGee to lead the attempt. Like her mother, Lucy knew her Patricia’s abilities well.

Unlike the other women in her family, Patricia did not go to the Phoenix Indian School. She attended the Bureau of Indian Affairs School near Kingman, Arizona. After her mother’s death, she was raised by her grandmother and aunts, and the Kingman school allowed her to remain closer to home. After graduation from Prescott High School, Patricia would continue her education at Haskell Indian Junior College in Lawrence, Kansas. She would live on the Hualapai reservation near the Grand Canyon. During this time, Patricia gained valuable experience working with the finance and public Health Departments of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

In the early 1960’s, Viola Jimulla knew her time was limited. She had wanted her talented granddaughter to return to Prescott and take her place in tribal leadership of the Yavapai. Viola had advised Patricia to come back and serve her home community. Patricia took the advice of her beloved grandmother and Chieftess. She returned to Prescott, became a member of the Tribal Council and served for the rest of her life.

Like her aunts, Grace Mitchell and Lucy Miller, Patricia McGee worked to aid both economic development and education. She enrolled in Prescott College during its first year of operation and majored in anthropology. Her skills in finance and land lease management were of great benefit to the tribe. She was appointed by President Nixon to serve on the National Advisory Council on Indian Education and became secretary-treasurer of the Indian Development district of Arizona. Her testimony before Congress on the Water Settlement Act enabled the Yavapai to gain valuable additional water allocations for their herds.

With Patricia’s counsel, the Yavapai-Prescott tribe signed the first agreement to allow casino style gaming in Arizona. She wrote a grant which was awarded $1,200,000 and convinced the city government it would be wise to issue municipal bonds to fund the remainder of the cost of building a resort hotel/casino on reservation land. This would become the Sheraton Resort / Prescott Conference Center. Tribal land was also used as a site the Frontier Village Shopping Center. These all yielded benefits to both the tribe and the community.

Harmonious relations with the Anglo community had been a goal of all the women in her family. But there is a difference between harmony and total assimilation. Like her Aunt Lucy, Patricia became concerned that an essential element to tribal identity was being lost. That element was language and cultural tradition. Doing something about that loss became a priority for her.

“Our young people need to know their own history, culture, tradition, and their own language. This lack of knowing hurts them and you can’t have self-esteem and self-determination with self-knowledge.” She and Lucy Miller began the steps which developed successful Yavapai history, culture and language programs at Yavapai College.

A beautiful statue stands in the lobby of the Prescott Conference Center. It shows a young girl working with her grandmother. Smiling together, they are weaving a beautiful and durable Yavapai basket. The statue was commissioned from a family photograph of Viola Jimulla and young Patricia. The photograph caught a special family moment, but it also caught the symbolism of the lives of a unique family.

Viola Jimulla guided her people from 1940 to 1966. Her two daughters, Grace Mitchell and Lucy Miller, continued the family’s legacy of service for two more decades. Finally, Patricia McGee served at President of the Tribal Council from 1972-1988 and from 1990-1994. Like her grandmother, McGee was inducted in the Arizona Women’s Hall of Fame. This honor came in 2006. In September, 2013, Prescott Mayor Marlin Kuykendall said, “This town would not be the community as we know it, had it not been for the Yavapai tribe.” And it is certain that the Yavapai people would not have achieved their level of security, self-esteem and self-knowledge without the legacy of four remarkable women.

“The Legacy of Viola Jimulla, Yavapai-Prescott Tribe Chieftess, Lives On,” Judy Riggenbach, Sharlot Hall Library & Archives, September 18,2010 Arizona Women’s Heritage Trail Arizona Centennial Legacy Project
Arizona’s Women’s Hall of Fame, Jimulla,Viola
Arizona’s Women’s Hall of Fame, McGee, Patricia Ann
University of Arizona, Women’s Plaza of Honor, Viola ‘Sicatuva’ Jimulla
University of Arizona News, Apr. 11, 2012 ‘U of A Women’s Plaza’
Prescott Courier, Mar. 7, 1976 “Chieftess of Yavapai Tribe Travelled Far,” C. Simpson
Prescott Courier, Jul. 16, 1976 ‘ Lucy Miller From Yavapai Tribe Is A Remarkable Chieftess’
The Daily Courier, 9/21/10 ‘Yavapai Chieftess Gets Overdue Honor in Prescott’ CindyBarks

  1. Speculate on the reasons Indian schools required students to attend school far away from their families on the reservation and adopt a different name.
  2. What were the three strongest motivators for Viola Jimulla?
  3. How old was Jimulla when she took over leadership of the tribe? How might her age have both complicated and aided her actions as Chieftess?
  4. What message do you think Viola Jimulla sent to the community when she was willing to give up some acreage on the Yavapai reservation to set aside for location of a community college and a city park?
  5. Each of these women focused on a specific theme to improve the lives of their people. Identify the theme for each.
    Viola Jimulla:
    Grace Mitchell:
    Lucy Miller
    Patricia McGee
  6. Write a question you would ask each of these women in a private interview.
    Viola Jimulla:
    Grace Mitchell:
    Lucy Miller:
    Patricia McGee:

But Why the Hungry?

“But Why the Hungry?”: One Man’s Dream Spreads From Phoenix Around the World

Is it really possible for one person to take on a huge problem and make a difference in finding a solution? What type of person does it take to make a significant impact? Hungry? We’ve all had the “I need a snack” hunger or the “I’ve just finished practice and I’m starving!” feeling of being hungry. But how many of us have gone for weeks never feeling full, or known that there will not be enough food for everyone in our family group to eat that day? That type of hunger is not just a Third World problem. Even in the food-rich United States, the number of children and adults suffering from hunger daily is larger than the population of many of our states!

Can one person make a difference? What if that person has the burdens of poverty, poor health, and a string of failed relationships and lost jobs spanning half their life? It would seem an impossible task for such a person to turn the dream of helping to feed the hungry into a reality. Yet that dream would become a reality spreading from one empty bakery in Phoenix, Arizona to thousands of locations around the world.

The dreamer was John van Hengel. He came to Phoenix in the mid-1960s, after a long string of disappointments and bad luck. During the 1940s and 1950s, van Hengel had been successful in advertising and sporting goods sales in California and Wisconsin. But setbacks — job losses, a divorce, and a back injury — caused John to seek a new start in the warmth of Arizona in the mid-1960s. John’s finances were minimal. He lived in an apartment over a garage, got his clothes at the Salvation Army, and described himself as “the oldest public pools lifeguard in Phoenix.” Volunteering at the soup kitchen run by St. Vincent de Paul entitled him to receive a nourishing meal each day. That also introduced him to other people who were in even more difficult situations. One day while working at the soup kitchen, John met a single parent who was helping to feed her family by retrieving the packaged food thrown away by grocery stores.

John van Hengel was a very ordinary man, with the bad habits and vices common to many of us. Fortunately, he was also an extraordinary man, with the ability to develop a unique idea, which could benefit others. Instead of relying on small food pantries at local churches and charitable facilities, van Hengel envisioned a food “bank,” where “deposited” donations could be “withdrawn” by people needing food. He worked with determination to bring this idea from a dream to a thriving organization.

Speaking in front of large groups made John uncomfortable, but he relied on his experience in sales to contact individual businesses, asking for donations or contributions of products. He was determined and persuasive in his explanation of how a food bank would work.
Food producers became convinced the cost of storing or disposing of unsalable products could be cut by donating the food. Donations would be safely handled and given away, not resold. Businesses would benefit through tax breaks and the positive publicity earned from charitable contributions. In 1967, a downtown Phoenix church donated an abandoned bakery owned by the church. Church members donated $3,000 to pay the utility bills for a year. St. Mary’s Food Bank, named after the parish where he volunteered, was born. John van Hengel used his own pickup truck to gather donated fresh produce from Arizona’s farm fields and citrus groves. In the first year, St. Mary’s Food Bank gave over 250,000 pounds of food to 36 charities helping to feed the hungry in the Phoenix area.

By the mid-1970’s, America’s Second Harvest was incorporated to manage the growing number of Food Banks. The new Tax Reform Act made it even more advantageous for businesses to donate inventory overstocks by allowing them larger tax breaks for donations to charities. Railroad cars full of food were heading to Phoenix. But this created a problem for van Hengel. Overseeing the donations and federal grants was beyond his managerial skills. In 1981, van Hengel was removed as the executive director of America’s Second Harvest. Instead of isolating himself after this embarrassment, John van Hengel put his focus on his dream, not himself. He enthusiastically used his knowledge and experience to assist others in setting up food banks. Hundreds of food banks throughout the United States, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America were developed with his help.

In 1992, van Hengel went to Washington, D.C. as the Guest of Honor at the Kennedy Center. He received the America’s Award. This award has often been called the Nobel Prize for Goodness. At sixty-nine, van Hengel continued with his mission to help feed the hungry in the United States and the world. Retirement would have interfered with this important mission. His involvement continued, in spite of Parkinson’s disease, until shortly before his death on October 5, 2005. That week, this Arizonan’s story was reported in the nation’s major newspapers: the LA Times, the Chicago Tribune, the Washington Post, and the New York Times.

Each year, the Feeding America Network holds a Summit and gives their highest honor to a person who has made a significant impact in the fight against hunger in America. That honor is the John van Hengel Award.
John once made the comment, “The poor may always be with us. But why the hungry?” He lived to see his efforts result in the distribution of millions of pounds of food and the support of over 50,000 charities operating food pantries, soup kitchens, emergency shelters and after-school programs. Today, these operations function and celebrate their success with the help of tens of thousands of volunteers, ranging from adolescents to senior citizens.

Can one person make a difference? Ask those volunteers. Ask someone whose family is less hungry thanks to the dream and efforts of John van Hengel.

(Sources: St. Mary’s Food Bank Newsletters, Washington Post, Oct 5, 2005 New York Times, Oct. 8, 2005 LA Times, Oct. 9, 2005 Chicago Tribune, Oct. 12, 2005)

  1. What was your first reaction to the statements about the number of hungry children in the United States?
  2. How many food banks are in Arizona? What volunteer opportunities are there in a food bank?
    Use the internet to research answers to one or more of these questions.
  3. What is the difference between the terms mass starvation, malnutrition, and
    food insecurity? How can an American suffering from food insecurity be identified?
  4. If a person suffers from food insecurity, which ways of obtaining food sources are socially acceptable versus unacceptable?
    How many Arizonans/Americans are suffering from food insecurity?
    http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/Hunger.htm http://www.worldhunger.org/contributefood_uslowfs.htm
    2b. Which 9 states in the U.S. have the highest rates of food insecurity?
    http://feedingamerica.org/hunger -in-america/hunger -facts/hunger -and-poverty- statistics.aspx 2c. What are the similar conditions in these 9 states?